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FEM BASED ANALYSIS
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FEM BASED ANALYSIS

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Of wing wall to culvert connection. As part of transportation systems, culverts are subjected to  complex load conditions such as earth pressure and  traffic live load. The objective of this paper is to study  factors that lead to crack formation in the culvert-wing  wall connection immediately after construction. 

Culverts are a type of hydraulic structures, that are often used in  highway infrastructure. A culvert is distinguished from a bridge  in that is fully embedded into the soil (1). Culverts are often  advantageous over the short span bridges due to economic feasibility  and environmental sustainability, especially in case of low road  embankment. They require less construction time and maintenance  costs. Nevertheless, the failure of the culvert components may interrupt  highway service. Culverts can be classified as arch, box, circular, or  masonry (2). Typical materials for culverts are reinforced concrete,  corrugated metal, solid-wall and strengthened plastic (3). Wood, cast-iron, vitrified clay pipe, and stone box culverts were used in the past (4).  This article focuses on crack formation in concrete cast-in-place (CIP)  culverts. They are preferable to others due to load carrying capacity  (wide waterways, deep embankments), high resistance to environmental  hazards (such as corrosion or temperature changes during freeze-thaw  periods) and low maintenance cost (5). In comparison with precast  sections, CIP culverts can be specially designed to meet the specific site  requirements.

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